I - Vietnam land border
1 - Border line and border gates
Up to June 2020, Vietnam's land border line has a length of 4,639km. Vietnam is bordered by China in the north for 1,449,566km, bordering Laos (2,067km) and Cambodia (1,137 km) in the west.
There are two types of border gates: international and national border gates. The border gate on the land with an entry-exit for a third country citizen is called the international border gate, while the national border gate is only for citizens of the two countries on either side of the border gate.
What countries border Vietnam? Vietnam shares the border line with 3 different countries including China on the North, Laos and Cambodia on the west. With each country, the border gate system comprises both international and national border gates.
- International border gates between Vietnam and China are in the provinces of Lang Son (Huu Nghi), Quang Ninh (Mong Cai), Cao Bang (Ta Lung), Ha Giang (Thanh Thuy), Lao Cai (Lao Cai).
- Vietnam and Laos border gates include Dien Bien (Tay Trang), Son La (Chan Bong), Thanh Hoa (Na Meo, ...), Nghe An (Nam Can), Ha Tinh (Cau Treo), Quang. Binh (Cha Lo), Quang Tri (Lao Bao, ...), Kon Tum (Bo Y), etc.
- Vietnam and Cambodia border gates include Dak Lak (Ganh Da), Gia Lai (Le Thanh), Binh Phuoc (Hoa Lu), Tay Ninh (Xamat, ..), Dong Thap (Dinh Ba, ..), An Giang (Vinh Xuong, ...), Long An (Binh Hiep), Kien Giang (Ha Tien).
In addition to the main border gates, Vietnam also has 9 sub-border gates.
2 - Immigration procedures at the border of Vietnam
Foreign tourists who want to enter Vietnam at the border gates need to go through the procedures by law. There are cases that will be exempt from visa when entering Vietnam with a temporary stay of not exceeding 15 days from the date of entry. Foreigners who are nationals of Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Japan, Korea, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland will be exempt from visa upon entering Vietnam if all of the following conditions are met:
- Having a valid passport issued by a competent authority of the country where the passport holder is a citizen, and this passport must be valid for at least 3 months from the date of entry.
- Having round-trip tickets or tickets to other countries
- Not belonging to the schools where entry is prohibited or has not been entered under the provisions of Vietnamese law.
When completing immigration procedures at the border gate, follow the instructions of the immigration officer in the cabin for foreigners without having to pay any related fees.
Except for visa exemption, foreign tourists who want to enter Vietnam are required to have a visa (visa) or letter to enter Vietnam. If you have a visa, when you arrive at the border gate, you only need to enter the cabin for the foreigner without paying any fees. For the case of an entry letter, you need to have a passport and fill out the visa application form, then pay the visa application fee as prescribed, and it's best to use USD to pay.
3 - Vietnam - China border
The land border of Vietnam and China is 1,449,566 km long, of which about 384km go along the river and stream, and directly adjacent to 7 provinces of Vietnam, namely Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lang Son and Quang Ninh, along with the Yunnan province and the Guangxi Choang ethnic autonomous region of China.
Between Vietnam and China, there are more than 1300 border landmarks, of which landmark No.0 is the border landmark between the three countries Vietnam, Laos and China in Muong Nhe district, Dien Bien province. It is the westernmost point of Vietnam. Besides, landmark No.1378 is where the border ends in Tra Co ward, Mong Cai city, Quang Ninh province. Landmarks No.17, 79, 92 are also the special locations.
The topography in the border area between Vietnam and China is relatively complicated, which is largely diverse, and gradually lowers from west to east. This contributes to the flow from Northwest to Southeast of rivers and streams here.
4 - Vietnam - Laos border
Laos is the first country that borders Vietnam on the west. Laos and Vietnam border lasts about 2,067 km, passing through 10 border provinces of Vietnam: Dien Bien, Son La, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam and Kon Tum, and 10 provinces of Laos: Phongsaly, Luongprabang, Houaphanh, Xiengkhuang, Borikhamxay, Khammuane, Savanakhet, Saravane, Sekong, and Attapeu.
Between Vietnam and Laos, there are 792 border landmarks, notably the Indochina landmark, a landmark between Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, this landmark is located near the Bo Y border gate, dubbed as "A chicken crows, it can be heard in three countries." place.
The border area of the two countries is purely mountainous. In the north it is made up of mountain peaks with an average height of 1,650m, with many rivers and streams flowing through the intersecting valleys creating a divided landscape. The next geographic area in the south creates a difficult-to-access area of the Truong Son range, lower and lower to the end of the border.
5 - Vietnam - Cambodia border
The border of Vietnam and Cambodia is about 1,137 kilometers, passing through 10 provinces of Vietnam: Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Binh Phuoc, Tay Ninh, Long An, Dong Thap, An Giang, Kien Giang, It is accompanied by 9 provinces of Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Croche, Tbong Khmum, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Kandal, Takeo and Kampot.
Between the two countries there are 314 border landmarks. The first landmark is called Indochina landmark, the last one is landmark no. 314 located in My Duc commune, Ha Tien city, Kien Giang province.
Topography of the border area of the two countries has two different forms, gradually lower from Kon Tum to Binh Phuoc. In the Central Highlands and Binh Phuoc provinces, forests and mountains are complicated, with many trails crossing the border. The provinces of Tay Ninh to Kien Giang have plain terrain, with many canals and rivers.
II - Sea border of Vietnam
Vietnam has a coastline of about 3,260 km, so the exchange of goods through the sea is very developed. Vietnam has 17 ports which are international sea border gates. Those are:
- Cai Lan / Hon Gai port located in Quang Ninh province
- Hai Phong port in Hai Phong city
- Nghi Son deep sea port, in Tinh Gia district, Thanh Hoa province
- Cua Lo port in Nghe An province
- Vung Ang port in Ha Tinh province
- Chan May port located in Thua Thien Hue province
- Tien Sa port in Da Nang city
- Ky Ha port is located in Quang Nam province
- Dung Quat port in Quang Ngai province
- Quy Nhon port located in Binh Dinh province
- Ba Ngoi port located in Khanh Hoa province
- Nha Trang port located in Khanh Hoa province
- Vung Tau port in Ba Ria Vung Tau province
- Phu My port in Ba Ria Vung Tau province
- Saigon Port located in Ho Chi Minh City
- Can Tho port located in Can Tho city
- An Thoi-Phu Quoc port in Kien Giang province
Border gates along the borders of Vietnam with other countries play a crucial role in trade exchange, economic cooperation, security and defense assurance.